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The levator ani is a broad, thin musclesituated on either side of the pelvis. It is formed from three muscle components: the pubococcygeus, the iliococcygeus, and the puborectalis. It is attached to the inner surface of each side of the lesser pelvisand these unite to form the greater part of the M.
levator der Prostata in Latein floor. The coccygeus muscle completes the pelvic floor which is also called the pelvic diaphragm. It supports the viscera in the pelvic cavityand surrounds the various structures that pass through it.
The levator ani is the main pelvic floor muscle and painfully contracts during vaginismus. It also contracts rhythmically during orgasm. The iliococcygeus arises from the inner side of the ischium the lower and back part of the hip bone and from the posterior part of the tendinous arch of the obturator fasciaand is attached to the coccyx and anococcygeal body ; it is usually thin, and may M.
levator der Prostata in Latein absent, or be largely replaced by fibrous tissue. An accessory slip at its posterior part is sometimes named the iliosacralis. The pubococcygeus muscle has medial fibres forming the pubovaginalis in the female, and the puboprostaticus in the male. The levator ani arises, in front, from the posterior surface of the superior pubic ramus lateral to the symphysis ; behind, from the inner surface of the spine of the ischium ; and between these two points, from the obturator fascia.
Posteriorly, this fascial origin corresponds, more or less closely, with the tendinous arch of the pelvic fascia, but in front, the muscle arises from the fascia at a varying distance above the arch, in some cases reaching nearly as high as the canal for the obturator vessels and nerve.
The fibers pass downward and backward to the middle line of the floor of the pelvis; the most posterior are inserted into the side of the last two segments of the coccyx ; those placed more anteriorly unite with the muscle of the opposite side, in a median fibrous ridge called the anococcygeal body or raphe, which extends between the coccyx and the margin of the anus.
The middle fibers are inserted into the side of the rectumblending with the fibers of the sphincter muscles; lastly in the male, the anterior fibers descend upon the side M. levator der Prostata in Latein the prostate to unite beneath it with the muscle of the opposite side, joining with the fibers of the external anal sphincter and transverse perineal musclesat the central tendinous point of the perineum.
In the female the anterior fibers of the levator ani descend upon the side of the vagina. The levator ani muscles are mostly innervated by the pudendal nerveperineal nerve and acting together.
The pubococcygeus muscle or PC muscle is a hammock-like muscle, found in both sexes, that stretches from the pubic bone to the coccyx tail bone forming the floor of the pelvic cavity and supporting the pelvic organs.
The pubococcygeus arises from the back of the pubis and from the anterior part of the obturator fasciaand is directed backward almost horizontally along the side of the anal canal toward the coccyx and sacrumto which it finds attachment. Between the termination of the vertebral column and the anus, the two pubococcygeus muscles come together and form a thick, fibromuscular layer lying on the raphe ridge or anococcygeal body formed by the iliococcygei.
The greater part of this muscle is inserted into the coccyx and into the M. levator der Prostata in Latein one or two pieces of the sacrum. The pubococcygeus muscle controls urine flow and contracts during orgasm as well as assisting in male ejaculation. A strong pubococcygeus muscle has also been linked to a reduction in urinary incontinence and proper positioning of the baby's head during childbirth. The Kegel exercises are a series of voluntary contractions of all the perineal muscles.
Such movement is done in an effort to strengthen all the striated muscles in the perineum's area. They are often referred to simply as "kegels", named after their founder, Dr. Arnold Kegel. Kegel exercises have been M. levator der Prostata in Latein to ameliorate erectile dysfunction due to venous leakage and to help men control premature ejaculation  and to treat urinary incontinence in both sexes.
The fibers which form a sling for the rectum are named the puborectalis. They arise from the lower part of the pubic symphysisand from the superior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm. The origin of the puborectalis fibers are at the posterior surface of the pubis while their insertion is at the midline sling posterior to the rectum. The muscle band is innervated by perineal branches of the S3 and S4 nerve roots. They meet with the corresponding fibers of the M. levator der Prostata in Latein side around the lower part of the rectum, and form for it a strong sling.
Relaxation increases the angle between rectum and anus, allowing defecation in conjunction with relaxation M. levator der Prostata in Latein the internal and external anal sphincters. The levator ani muscles are responsible for "wagging" the tail in tailed quadrupeds. These muscles are not as strong in the human, as tail-wagging is more demanding than the support function that the muscles serve in humans.
Levator ani syndrome is episodic rectal pain caused by spasm of the levator ani muscle. Iliac colon, sigmoid or pelvic colon, and rectum seen from the front, after removal of pubic bones and bladder. The posterior aspect of the rectum exposed by removing the lower part of the sacrum and the coccyx. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Levator ani Left Levator ani seen from within.
Coronal section through the male anal canal. Cavity of M. levator der Prostata in Latein bladder V. Vas deferens. Seminal vesicle. Second part of rectum. Anal canal. Levator ani. Internal anal sphincter. S External anal sphincter. Puborectalis not labeled, but levator ani labeled at bottom right, and external anal sphincter labeled at bottom center.
Main article: Levator ani syndrome. Viewed from behind. This M. levator der Prostata in Latein uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see anatomical terminology. Lippincott, 2nd ed. Neurogastroenterol Motil. Wayne; Mitchell, Adam Gray's Anatomy for Students Third ed. Chapple Churchill Livingstone.
Retrieved Jean C. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Bartram 27 October Gastroenterology Clinics of North America. Muscles and ligaments of abdomen and pelvis. Abdominal external oblique Transverse abdominal Conjoint tendon Rectus sheath rectus abdominis pyramidalis Arcuate line Tendinous intersection Cremaster Abdominal internal oblique. Inguinal triangle Inguinal canal Deep inguinal ring Superficial inguinal ring Intercrural fibers Crura of superficial inguinal ring Inguinal ligament Pectineal ligament Lacunar ligament Reflected ligament.
Left Levator ani seen from within. Inner surface of the side of the lesser pelvis. Inner surface of coccyxlevator ani of opposite side, and into structures that penetrate it. Inferior M. levator der Prostata in Latein artery. Supports the viscera in pelvic cavity. Anatomical terms of muscle [ edit on Wikidata ]. S3, S4.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Levator ani. Muscle quadratus lumborum Iliopsoas psoas major psoas minor iliacus. Muscle levator ani iliococcygeus pubococcygeus puborectalis coccygeus rectococcygeus. TA98 : A