In Impaza Prostatitis experiment, we determined whether a compound enhancing the activity of eNOS, Impaza, could stimulate any aspect of sexual behavior and increase penis length in rats with a high baseline of sexual activity.
For comparison, the Impaza Prostatitis inhibitor sildenafil was included. Male rats were orally treated with Impaza or sildenafil for 28 days. Tests for sexual incentive Impaza Prostatitis and copulatory Impaza Prostatitis were performed just before drug treatment and at days 7, 14 and 28 of treatment. In addition, the length of the protruding penis at mount, intromission and ejaculation was measured. Impaza but not sildenafil increased penis length at mount after 14 and 28 days of treatment.
The compounds failed to modify sexual incentive motivation or copulatory behavior. It is suggested that Impaza enhanced intracavernous pressure, as such a pressure increase is the most likely explanation for enhanced penis length at mount. This effect, together with an absence of motivational actions, suggests that Impaza may be the most valuable treatment for erectile dysfunction.
Access provided by. Erectile dysfunction is Impaza Prostatitis most common sexual disorder in older men. A compound, Impaza, stimulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase eNOS has been reported to facilitate erection in men.
Furthermore, sildenafil and Impaza were found to enhance sexual incentive motivation in young adult rats with an initially low motivation level while it was ineffective in males with a high baseline level of motivation. In the present experiment, we evaluated the effects of 28 days of treatment with Impaza or sildenafil on copulatory behavior and sexual incentive motivation in animals with a high baseline Impaza Prostatitis of sexual activity.
Moreover, the length of the protruding, erect Impaza Prostatitis was measured during mount, intromission and ejaculation with the help of a video-recording procedure.
Studies in cats have shown that compounds increasing intracavernous pressure also increase penile length. It was predicted that penis length at mount, but not at intromission and ejaculation, would be enhanced by proerectile treatment, whereas sexual behavior Impaza Prostatitis be unaffected in these highly active Impaza Prostatitis. The reason for predicting a specific effect on penis length at mount is that erection during mounting in Impaza Prostatitis is Impaza Prostatitis a vascular response, while intromission and ejaculation are associated with suprasystolic intracavernous pressure because of contraction of the striated penile muscles.
Tap water and commercial rat pellets were freely available. The females were ovariectomized under isoflurane anesthesia at least 2 weeks before use as partners in tests for copulatory behavior and as sexual incentives in the test for sexual motivation.
They Impaza Prostatitis dissolved in peanut oil, and the injection volume was 0. The actual concentration of the antibodies is not known, but the solution used here is identical to the one used in clinical Impaza Prostatitis. The solution was always used on the day of preparation. This test has been described in detail elsewhere.
Before each experimental session, the arena and the incentive animal cages were carefully washed with 0. The incentive animals a sexually receptive female and an intact male were then placed in their respective cages.
At the beginning of an observation, an experimental subject was introduced into the middle of the arena. Immediately thereafter, the experimenter left the room and did not return until just after the end of the min Impaza Prostatitis period. The subject was gently removed from the arena, and the Impaza Prostatitis rat was introduced. Impaza Prostatitis descriptions of this test can be found elsewhere.
This allowed for a simultaneous side and ventral view of the copulating male. This arrangement assured that Impaza Prostatitis ventral part of the rat was clearly illuminated making it possible to Impaza Prostatitis the penis during copulation. Copulatory behavior was then observed until the end of the first postejaculatory interval.
Standard behavioral parameters Impaza Prostatitis defined elsewhere 23 were recorded with an in-house software. The cage floor was carefully washed with commercial glass cleaning liquid before the introduction of a new rat in order to assure an optimum ventral view. Tests were recorded on DVD digital video disc for later analyses. The frame where the erection was maximal was always chosen for measurement of the Impaza Prostatitis penis.
This was done directly on the projection screen with a digital caliper. Measurement was not possible at every mount or intromission because of an unsatisfactory view.
Nevertheless, in most sexually active animals, at least five erections during mount and another five at intromission were measurable. The erection observed after ejaculatory withdrawal was measured whenever possible. The mean penis length for mount and intromission was then calculated for each animal at each test.
This mean was used for statistical analysis. All screen measurements were transformed into actual penis length before analysis. The measurements Impaza Prostatitis made by an assistant blind to the treatments. Initially, 60 rats were tested six Impaza Prostatitis for copulatory behavior. Tests were performed twice a week. The intromission ratio is often used as an indicator of the efficiency of erection and appropriate contraction of the ischiocavernosus muscles, 23 both of which are required for vaginal penetration intromission.
Provided the number of pre-ejaculatory intromissions is constant, animals with Impaza Prostatitis intromission ratio will perform more mounts than animals with a high intromission ratio, hence copulatory behavior can be considered more intense in the former. In the present study, we selected animals with a low intromission ratio with the purpose of including only subjects with a high level of copulatory activity.
In case an animal had failed to display copulatory behavior during the last three pretests, it was assigned an intromission ratio of 1.
The median of all animals was then determined, and the subjects with an intromission ratio below the median were selected Impaza Prostatitis the experiment.
Even though this cutoff point is arbitrary, it Impaza Prostatitis assure that the selected animals displayed a higher Impaza Prostatitis of sexual activity than a non-selected sample would. The selected animals had a median semi-interquartile range of 0. The selected and non-selected animals had the same mean Impaza Prostatitis of intromissions at Impaza Prostatitis last three pretests selected, Thus, the selected animals displayed a much more intense copulatory behavior than the non-selected animals.
This is the reason for maintaining that the subjects used in this experiment had a high baseline sexual activity. The selected animals were randomly assigned to one of the three groups of 10 Impaza Prostatitis each.
A baseline test was then performed. First, the subjects were exposed to the motivation test. Immediately after the min observation period, they were transferred to the copulatory behavior testing room. The morning after the baseline test, drug treatment was initiated. Sildenafil was always given on the day of testing. The second weekly sildenafil treatment was performed 3 days later. Impaza Prostatitis frequency of sildenafil treatment was used in Impaza Prostatitis to approximate the typical on-demand clinical use.
Treatments were given daily for 28 days, and tests were performed on Days 7, 14 and 28 of treatment. Treatment effects were evaluated by determining the difference between the baseline and later tests in each parameter.
The value obtained at baseline was simply subtracted from the value obtained at later tests. Impaza Prostatitis procedure allows for a sensitive analysis of treatment-induced changes, corrected for any group differences at baseline. It is commonly used in pharmacological and behavioral studies. The within-groups factor was test day Days 7, 14 and 28 and the between-groups factor was treatment water, Impaza and sildenafil.
The time Impaza Prostatitis in the incentive zones was evaluated by three-factor ANOVA with repeated measures on two factors. Test day and incentive male, Impaza Prostatitis were the within-groups factors and treatment was the between-groups factor.
Data from the copulatory behavior tests as well as penis length were analyzed by two-factor ANOVA in the same way as the preference score. Finally, the difference Impaza Prostatitis the baseline and each of the following tests was evaluated with the one-sample t -test in order to determine whether it was significantly different from 0. Thus, sexual incentive motivation was not modified by the treatments. Data are illustrated in Figure 1b.
Tests were performed Impaza Prostatitis before the beginning of drug treatment baseline and at treatment days 7, 14 and The interaction was due to the fact that the group treated with water moved shorter distances as treatment progressed, whereas the other groups remained at a stable level.
Activity data are displayed in Impaza Prostatitis 2. Copulatory behavior was unaffected by the treatments data not shown. Tests were performed just before the beginning of drug treatment baseline and at treatment Days 7, 14 and There was no difference between the groups given water and sildenafil. Thus, Impaza Impaza Prostatitis penis length at mount. Impaza Prostatitis was no significant effect at any other test and in any other group.
None of the treatments affected penis length at ejaculation. The data from the baseline test are illustrated in Figure 3. In Figure 4data from the three treatment tests are shown as the difference from the baseline. Penis length at mount, intromission Impaza Prostatitis ejaculation at the baseline test. Present results show that none of the treatments modified sexual incentive motivation or copulatory behavior.
This is in Impaza Prostatitis with earlier studies where it was found that sildenafil and Impaza only enhance sexual incentive motivation in subjects with a low baseline level of motivation. In agreement with these observations, the experimental treatments used in the present study had Impaza Prostatitis behavioral effects.